Networking Guide

About this book
        How this book is organized
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Networking overview
        Introduction to networking
                Remote and distributed administration
                About clients and servers
                Network hardware drivers
                        Other network drivers
                Types of networking maintenance tasks
        SCO OpenServer networking services
                Networking components
        Networking protocol stacks
                        TCP/IP Protocols
                        Other TCP/IP protocols
                        Network servers and databases
                        TCP/IP end-user commands
                        Configuring TCP/IP
                        Administering TCP/IP
                        IPX/SPX end-user commands
                        Configuring IPX/SPX
                        Administering IPX/SPX
                Other compatible stacks
                Serial line communications
                        Configuring serial lines
                        Administering serial lines
                UUCP and cu
                        Configuring UUCP and cu
                        Administering UUCP and cu
        The distributed computing environment
                Administering other systems with SCOadmin managers
                        Remote capabilities
                        Distributed capabilities
                Distributed user applications
                Distributed filesystems
                        Configuring NFS
                        Administering NFS
                Remote installation and software administration
                        Administering an installation server
                Distributed electronic mail
                        Configuring a mail transfer agent
                        Administering a mail transfer agent
                Distributed name services
                        Administering a name service
                Distributed management framework
                Distributed printing
                        Configuring remote printing
                Distributed time services
                Distributed user management
                        Administering distributed user accounts
        Connecting to other operating systems
                Accessing DOS and OS/2 servers with LAN Manager Client
                        LAN Manager Client capabilities
                        Administration procedures
                Accessing NetWare servers with SCO Gateway for NetWare
                        SCO Gateway for NetWare capabilities
                        Administering SCO Gateway for NetWare
                Serving NetWare computers with IPX/SPX
                        Administering IPX/SPX

Using the network
        Access privileges
        Finding out networking names
        Logging in to a remote machine
        Transferring files
        Running commands remotely
        Accessing shared files

Administering TCP/IP
        Configuring TCP/IP client services
                The Client Manager interface
                Configuring a DNS client
                Configuring the /etc/hosts file
                Configuring a default route
                Configuring name service resolution order
                Configuring an NTP client
                Deleting a client service
                Using network tools
                        Finding information about a user
                        Looking up a hostname or an IP address
                        Pinging other network hosts
                        Tracing the route taken by network packets
                        Looking up a name in the Internet domain name directory service
        Setting interface parameters
        Creating subnets
        Establishing user equivalence
                The User Equivalence Manager interface
                        Opening another user's equivalence file
                        Adding user equivalence
                        Selecting another host while adding equivalence
                        Deleting user equivalence
                Using the Secure TCP (``Kerberized'') utilities
                Protecting against IP address spoofing attacks
                Protecting against SYN flood attacks
        Setting up anonymous ftp
        Adding or removing pseudo-ttys
        Configuring UUCP over TCP/IP
                Configuring UUCP over TCP/IP with the TCP socket interface
                Configuring UUCP over TCP/IP with TLI
        Obtaining RFCs from the Internet
        Troubleshooting TCP/IP
                Verifying the presence of TCP/IP interfaces
                Verifying local network connectivity
                Verifying remote network connectivity
                Troubleshooting problems with netstat
                        Flushing phantom connections
                        Troubleshooting packet errors
                        Monitoring streams usage
                        Verifying correct routing behavior
                Logging troubleshooting information

Administering SCO IPX/SPX
        How IPX/SPX works
                        How protocols work
                        Medium-access protocols
                        Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)
                        Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX)
                        Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
                        Service Advertising Protocol (SAP)
                Packet delivery
                        Network interconnection devices
                        Intrasegment packet routing
                        Intersegment packet routing
                        Routing information administration
                        Routing information broadcasts
                Service advertising
                        Server information table
                        Novell object types
                        Server information administration
                        File server addressing
                Client-server interaction
                Configuration files
        Managing IPX/SPX
                Accessing the SCO IPX/SPX graphical utilities
                Monitoring current NVT connections (dnvt)
                Displaying the routing information table (drouter)
                Displaying IPX/SPX and network media interface information (getlan)
                Starting and stopping IPX/SPX (ipx)
                Logging into NVT servers (nlogin)
                Testing IPX/SPX connections (nping)
                Displaying available NetWare services (showsvcs)
                Service advertising broadcast operation (track)
                Displaying the server information table (track)
        Troubleshooting IPX/SPX
                IPX operation
                Daemon operation
                Router operation
                LAN adapters
                Addressing problems
                Server names
                Disconnections from suspended NVT sessions
                Relinking the kernel
        Installing and using the DOS component
                Copying NVT
                Configuring IPXODI
                Configuring NVT
                Configuring terminal emulation software
                Command-line options for NVT
                Using the DOS component
        For more about IPX/SPX

Configuring Internet Protocol (IP) routing
        How routing works
                Direct versus indirect routing
                Routing table description
                        Direct routing example
                        Indirect routing example
                        Routing table updates
                Routing daemons
                        irdd description
                        routed description
                        gated description
                Default routes
                Autonomous systems -- exterior vs. interior routers
                Routing protocols
                        Internet Router Discovery (IRD) protocol
                        Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
                        Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol
                        Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)
                        Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
        The gated configuration file
                Statements of the gated configuration file
                gated preferences and route selection
                        gated route selection criteria
                        Assigning preferences in gated
                gated directive statements
                gated trace statements
                gated options statements
                gated interfaces statements
                gated definition statements
                gated RIP protocol statement
                gated OSPF protocol statement
                gated EGP protocol statement
                gated BGP protocol statement
                gated redirect protocol statement
                gated SNMP protocol statement
                gated static statements
                gated control statements
                        gated route filtering
                        Matching AS paths in gated
                        gated import control statements
                        gated export control statements
        Configuring a system for IP routing
                Configuring irdd
                Configuring routed
                Configuring gated
        Administering IP routing
        Troubleshooting IP routing

Configuring the Domain Name Service
        How DNS works
                DNS domains and zones
                        DNS domain and hostnames
                        The Internet domain structure
                        Registering a domain name
                DNS servers and clients
                        Primary servers
                                Stub service
                        Secondary servers
                        Caching-only servers
                        Remote servers
                        Slave mode servers
                DNS resolution
                        DNS resolvers
                        DNS root servers
                        DNS forwarders
                        The /etc/resolv.conf file
                DNS utilities and daemons
        Basic DNS configuration
                Configuring a caching-only server
                Configuring a primary server
                Configuring a secondary server
                Configuring a remote server
        Advanced DNS configuration
        Administering and troubleshooting DNS
                Troubleshooting DNS
                Using nslookup
                        Using nslookup interactively
                                nslookup interactive commands
                                nslookup interactive options
                        Querying a single name or address
        For more about DNS

Configuring a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server
        When to use SCO DHCP
        How the SCO DHCP server works
                Manually assigning IP addresses
                Dynamically assigning IP addresses
                        IP address assignment priority
                        The lease for an assigned IP address
                DHCP options
                        Option overload
                        Default option values
                User-defined options
                Making DHCP work with BOOTP
        The DHCP Server Manager interface
        Configuring user-defined options
                Adding or modifying user-defined options
                Deleting user-defined options
        Configuring DHCP options
        Configuring subnet option sets
                Adding or modifying a subnet option set
                Deleting a subnet option set
        Configuring vendor class option sets
                Adding or modifying a vendor class option set
                Deleting a vendor class option set
        Configuring user class option sets
                Adding or modifying a user class option set
                Deleting a user class option set
        Configuring DHCP client option sets
                Adding or modifying a client option set
                Deleting a client option set
        Specifying DHCP server parameters
        Specifying the location of the AAS server
        Troubleshooting DHCP
                Cannot boot client
                DHCP cannot find AAS
                Clients not being configured with all options
        For more about DHCP

Configuring an Address Allocation Server (AAS)
        How the SCO Address Allocation Server works
                Address database
                AAS configuration database
        The Address Allocation Manager interface
        Configuring address pools
                Adding or modifying an address pool
                Renaming an address pool
                Deleting an address pool
        Administering the Address Allocation Server
                Querying pool definitions and address allocation
                Releasing, disabling, and re-enabling addresses
                Configuring the address server
                Resetting the state of the AAS database
        Troubleshooting the Address Allocation Server
        For more about AAS

Configuring the Network Information Service (NIS)
        How NIS works
                NIS domain
                NIS maps
                        Understanding YP_MAP_X_LATE
                        Propagating an NIS map
                NIS servers and clients
                NIS binding
                About managing users
                About netgroups
                Using NIS maps in the password file
                Using NIS maps in the group file
                NIS interaction with security modes
                        Security limitations on configuration
                        Map integration restrictions in Secure Mode
                        Special NIS password change
                NIS logfiles
        Enabling an NIS server
                Planning an NIS configuration
                        Selecting domains
                        Selecting servers
                Setting up an NIS server
                        Editing YP_MAP_X_LATE
                        Checking the NIS domain name
                        Adding NIS to your PATH variables
                Initializing NIS
                        Initializing a master server
                        Initializing a slave server
                        Initializing a copy-only server
                        Initializing an NIS Client
                Reinitializing a server
                Starting and stopping NIS
        Administering an NIS domain
                Modifying server attributes
                        Propagating maps
                        Modifying the remote binding mode
                        Modifying the local binding mode
                Modifying the NIS domain name
                Modifying the list of NIS servers
                        Adding an NIS server to the server list
                        Removing an NIS server from the server list
                        Changing the master NIS server
        Creating NIS maps
                Modifying existing maps
                Creating new maps
        Administering NIS maps
                Modifying the map list
                Modifying map attributes
                        Viewing timestamp
                        Modifying map names and aliases
                        Synchronizing servers
                Retrieving maps from the master server
                Distributing maps to nonmaster servers
        Administering NIS logfiles
        Administering NIS users and groups
                Managing distributed user accounts
                Modifying group attributes on servers
                Creating netgroups
                Distributing home directories
        Troubleshooting NIS
                NIS logging
                NIS server problems
                Domain name problems
                Network problems
        For more about NIS

Configuring the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
        How SNMP works
                New features in this release of SNMP
                Agents and management stations
                The SNMP protocol
                SMI: Structure of Management Information
                Management Information Base (MIB)
                        Enabling the Host Resources MIB (RFC1514)
                SNMP PDUs and operations
                SMUX peers
        SNMP configuration
                Configuring SNMP with the SNMP Agent Manager
                        The SNMP Agent Manager interface
                        Selecting another host to manage
                        Configuring the SNMP ``system'' group
                        Configuring the SNMP ``communities'' group
                        Configuring the SNMP ``trap'' group
                        Configuring the SNMP ``peers'' group
        Using the SNMP commands
                The definitions file
                Getting a variable
                Getting ID variables
                Getting the next OID variable
                Getting many variables at once
                Getting routing information for a given network
                Getting routing information
                Getting a subset of routing information
                Modifying SNMP variables
                Viewing SNMP status
                        Viewing the system group status
                        Viewing active endpoints
                        Viewing the transport table
                        Showing the routing table
                        Viewing the address translation table
                        Viewing active interfaces
                        Viewing all objects in an SNMP group
                Testing trap delivery and reception
        Using SNMP to correct problems
                Removing an incorrect routing entry
                Obtaining remote system contacts
                Marking an interface down
                Removing an incorrect ARP entry
        For more about SNMP

Configuring the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
        PPP endpoint configurations
                Automatic dialup endpoint characteristics
                Manual dialup endpoint characteristics
                Remote access endpoint characteristics
                Dedicated endpoint characteristics
        Configuring PPP
                        Starting the PPP Manager
                        Starting the PPP Connection Wizard
                Adding the PPP protocol stack
                Adding a PPP dialup endpoint using the PPP Connection Wizard
                Adding a PPP link endpoint using the PPP Manager
                Configuring an endpoint for automatic or manual dialup
                Configuring an endpoint for remote access
                Configuring an endpoint for a dedicated link
                Configuring a PPP gateway
                Changing default values for PPP link endpoints
                Modifying a PPP link endpoint
                Removing a PPP endpoint
                Removing the PPP stack
        Advanced PPP configuration
                Configuring communications parameters
                Configuring timeout values
                Configuring link parameters
                Configuring IP parameters
        Administering PPP
                How SCO PPP works
                        PPP support for smart serial port devices
                        PPP links
                SCO PPP features
                PPP negotiation
                PPP configuration files
                Signaling the PPP daemon
                How UUCP is configured for outgoing dialup
                Logging PPP information
                PPP packet filtering
                        Creating a packet filter
                PPP authentication methods
                PPP gateway
                        Proxy ARP
                Complex PPP connection scenarios
                        PPP gateway scenario
                        PPP server scenario
                PPP MIB support
                Configuring PPP asynchronous serial driver support
        Example PPP endpoint configurations
                Example entry for automatic dialup
                Example entry for manual dialup
                Example entry for remote access
                Example entry for a dedicated serial endpoint
        Configuring PPP for use with other PPP implementations
                Connections with SCO TCP/IP Release 1.2.0 PPP
                Connections with MorningStar PPP 1.3 for SCO
                Connections with Telebit NetBlazer 1.5
        Troubleshooting PPP
                Verifying the existence of a PPP network interface
                Using ping to test reachability using host names
                Verifying UUCP connectivity before PPP use
                Testing automatic dialup connectivity
                Testing manual dialup connectivity
                Testing remote access
                Verifying integrity of a dedicated serial line
                Testing dedicated link connectivity
                Troubleshooting PPP negotiation
        For more about PPP

Configuring the Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
        SLIP link configurations
                Dynamic incoming link characteristics
                Dynamic outgoing link characteristics
                Dedicated manual link characteristics
        Configuring SLIP
                Adding the SLIP protocol stack
                Adding a SLIP link
                        Configuring a dynamic incoming link
                        Configuring a dynamic outgoing link
                        Configuring UUCP for dynamic outgoing links
                        Configuring a dedicated manual link
                Modifying a SLIP link
                Removing a SLIP link
                Removing the SLIP stack
        Administering SLIP
                Running slattach for users other than root
                How SCO SLIP works
                SCO SLIP features
                SLIP configuration files
                SLIP packet filtering
                SLIP gateway
                Proxy ARP
                Complex SLIP connection scenarios
                        SLIP gateway scenario
                        SLIP server scenario
        Advanced SLIP configuration
                        Configuring proxy address resolution
                        Configuring TCP/IP header compression
                        Configuring flow control
                        Configuring ICMP packet suppression
                        Configuring the maximum transmission unit
                        Configuring SLIP debugging messages
                        Configuring packet filtering
        Troubleshooting SLIP
                Troubleshooting dedicated manual SLIP links
                Troubleshooting dynamic outgoing SLIP links
                Troubleshooting dynamic incoming SLIP links
                Using ping to troubleshoot SLIP link problems
                Troubleshooting rlogin and telnet problems
        For more about SLIP

Testing connectivity with other sites
        The Node Check Manager interface
        Adding a node to the ping list
        Deleting a node from the ping list
        Starting and stopping ping sessions
        Configuring the node down alert
        Specifying a ping failure action
        Changing the ping session interval
        Viewing the ping history log

Configuring the Network File System (NFS)
        The Filesystem Manager interface
        How NFS works
                Distributed filesystems
                        About exporting and importing filesystems
                        Filesystems supported by SCO NFS
                        About mounting and unmounting NFS filesystems
                        Incompatibilities with distributed filesystems
                NFS server and client daemons
                NFS configuration files
                About managing user accounts
                Remote file locking
                        The lockd daemon
                        The statd daemon
        Enabling NFS
                Starting/stopping NFS
                Configuring the Network Lock Manager (NLM)
                        Setting block timeout
                        Setting the grace period
                        Allocating additional server lockd daemons
        Adding and removing mount configuration
        Modifying filesystem mount configuration
                Enabling users to mount filesystems
                NFS filesystem advanced mount options
        Mounting and unmounting filesystems
        Adding, modifying and removing filesystem export configuration
                Setting export access permissions
                Setting anonymous access permissions
        Exporting and unexporting filesystems
        Troubleshooting NFS
                Slow network adapters
                Network and server problems
                rnode table overflow
                Remote mount failed
                Programs are hung
                Everything works slowly
                Validation errors
                Nonexistent NFS server
                Troubleshooting failed lock requests
                Clock skew in user programs

Configuring the NFS automounter
        How automount works
                When to use automount
                How automount works
                        Actual and virtual mount points
                        Unexpected filesystem behavior
                        Use of redundant servers
                        The mount table
                Direct and indirect mounting
                        Direct mounting example
                        Indirect mounting example
                About automount maps
                        Master automount maps
                        Direct automount maps
                        Indirect automount maps
                        Built-in automount maps
                        Understanding map modifications
                About mount point conflicts
        Configuring automount
                Planning an automount configuration
                Creating master automount maps
                Creating indirect and direct automount maps
                        Creating indirect automount maps
                        Creating direct automount maps
                Setting advanced automount map options
                        Using built-in automount maps
                        Optimizing subdirectory mounting
                        Simplifying map syntax
                        Mounting directories from other operating systems
                        Specifying redundant servers
                        Using multiple direct mounts
                Starting automount
                Stopping and restarting automount
                Unmounting automounted filesystems
        Managing automount with NIS
                Mixing local and distributed automount maps
                Setting automount environment variables
                Creating local automount maps
                Distributing home directories with automount
        Troubleshooting automount
                Unexpected automount termination
                Unnecessary automounts
                automount error conditions

Printing remotely over TCP/IP
        How RLP works
        The client/server model
        Installing and removing RLP
                Manually adding remote printers
        Deleting printcap entries
        Setting up a client
        Setting up a print server
        Using RLP
                4.3BSD clients
                SCO OpenServer clients
        For more about remote line printing

Administering a Calendar server
        How the Calendar server works
        Using the default configuration
        Using the calendar over a network
        Administering the calendar
                Selecting the Calendar Administration utility (Cal Util)
                Viewing calendar statistics / troubleshooting (1)
                Archiving and updating the database (2)
                Verifying data integrity (3)
                Merging two calendar databases (4)
                Converting a calendar database (5)
                Moving a user's calendar (6)
                Stopping and starting the server (7)
                Pausing and resuming the server (8)
                Configuring the calendar (9)
                        Sample configuration
                Starting the calendar daemon (10)
                Examining server log files (11)

Configuring the Network Time Protocol (NTP)
        How NTP works
                New features in this release of NTP
                NTP glossary
        NTP guidelines
        An example synchronization subnet
        Using NTP without Internet access
        The NTP configuration file
                NTP configuration statements
                Example ntp.conf file
                The NTP keys file
                The NTP clock.txt file
                The NTP driftfile
                NTP association modes
                NTP address and mask facility
                NTP name resolution
        NTP sample scenarios
        Testing and tuning NTP
        NTP query commands
        Further examples of NTP
        Troubleshooting NTP
        Running mixed synchronization subnets
        For more about NTP

Configuring the Time Synchronization Protocol (TSP)
        How the time daemon works
                Electing a new TSP master
        TSP guidelines
        TSP options
        Administering TSP
        For more about TSP

Distributing files remotely over TCP/IP
        New rdist features
        Writing a distfile
        Using rdist
                Distributing software
                Notifying users of updates
                Message logging

Installing and managing software over the network
        Setting up a software server
        Installing from remote source machines
        Managing software on remote hosts
                Installing software
                        Loading software
                Verifying software
                        Updating product databases
                Removing software
                About dependencies
                Examining software packages
                        Examining installed software
                        Examining software to be installed
        Installing or upgrading the system from a remote host
                Installing database files to support remote installations
                Configuring the ISL server
                Installing on the ISL client
                Networked ISL across subnet boundaries
        About the new product structure
                Software storage objects
                Product file locations